no39 2002
The Child Restraint System - No Magic Chair

  Japan recorded a total of 8,747 fatalities and 1,180,955 injuries from road traffic accidents during 2001. Of this total, 1,566 fatalities (17.9%) and 183,043 injuries (15.5%) were sustained by motorcycle occupants.
  In terms of primary injury receiving body parts among motorcyclist fatalities, 48.9% were the head, 1.0% the face, 8.2% the neck. The figure for the head was 7 points and that for the neck was 2 points higher than the corresponding figures for four-wheeled vehicle occupants.
  Because of higher head/neck injury risks in motorcycle accidents, helmets have an important role to play in the protection of motorcycle occupants. In this report the results of motorcycle accident data analysis are reviewed to determine the effect of helmets and the manner of wearing a helmet.

1. Helmet Types and Structure
2. Helmet Use and Injuries to Motorcycle Occupants
2.1. Helmet Wearing Ratio and Slip-off
2.2. Helmet Slip-off and Head Injury
3. Helmet Types and Injury
4. Motorcycle Accident Case Histories
4.1. Motorcycle Moving Straight at Intersection
4.2. Motorcycle Making a Right Turn at Intersection
4.3. Motorcycle Passing a Car at Intersection
1-2. Wearing a crash helmet

  The foremost function of helmets is to cushion impact on the head of a motorcycle occupant, but their protective performances vary according to design types. Unless a correct type of helmet is used in an appropriate way, helmets cannot give their potential protection.
  While a motorcycle allows its occupant a much greater feel of nature as compared to a four-wheeled vehicle, it must depends more heavily on the awareness and behavior of the occupant for running safety.
  But an accident may be brought by surprise from other parties, and once an accident occurs the motorcycle occupant can be more vulnerable to serious injury. Motorcycle users therefore need to protect themselves by selecting an appropriate helmet and by fastening the chin strap correctly.

Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis (ITARDA)